A. Introductory Questions Author The letter states Paul is the writer, but scholars argue this is pseudepigraphic (Powell p 419, HCSB p 2229). Date The date of the letter is widely disputed depending on authorship meaning the book could have been written in the early 60CE, or mid 60CE (Powell p418-419) or the end of the first century (80-100CE) or the beginning of the second century (100-125CE) (Powell p 419, HCSB p2230). Audience The letter is addressed to Timothy a travel companion of Paul (HCSB p2231, Powell 415). Genre This has elements of a letter but reads more like a church handbook written to help “ensure the Pauline tradition gets carried forward” (Powell p419)(HCSB p2230).
B. Outline Diagram with Summaries
Qualifications of Bishops The person who aspires to be bishop should be of good moral character (3:2-3), manage his household and keep children respectable (3:4) and thought well of by everyone (3:7). Household Code Men should pray always (2:8) and women should dress modestly and profess reverence to God (2:9-10). No women should teach but all should be silent (2:12) and women are saved through childbirth and proper living (2:15). Respect your elders (5:1-2). Slaves honor your masters (6:1-2). Qualifications of Deacons Deacons must be upstanding and show their faith (3:8-9) and show that they are blameless (3:10. Women should be held to the same standard (3:11). Married only once and able to maintain order in the household (3:12). Widows Honor real widows (5:3) those without family to provide for them (5:4). Widows should be over 60 and married once (5:9) and a servant doing good (5:10). Younger widows should remarry to stop sensual desires (5:11) as they will be idle and gossip doing what should not be done (5:13). Against False Teaching Those people who do not agree with the teachings of Jesus are “conceited, understanding nothing,” (6:4) and want to cause dissention. If we are content with what we have there is godliness (6:6. Do not desire riches (6:9) “for the love of money is the root of all kinds of evil.” (6:10) Great work with consistent biblical citations
C. Interpretive Issues One issue with 1 Timothy is the household codes found in 2:8-15. Specifically, that women should learn in silence and be submissive (2:11) and that women will be saved through childbirth (2:15). “The emphasis on childbearing may be a response to the false teachers’ rejection of marriage (4:3)” (HCSB p2233). However, this seems out of character for authentic/historical Pauline letters that lift up women as leaders (Rom 16:1-4, Phil 4:2-3). This could be an indication of divinely assigned gender roles or maybe a way to keep Christianity from being attacked at the time it was written (Powell p 424).
D. Ministerial Application At Treehouse we strive to stay grounded in the faith and living out the commandments, love God and love neighbor. 1 Timothy 4 helps us train for being models of love in the world. Through being on campus and giving away popsicles and blessings to people of all gender identities and racial understandings we put our faith in practice and share the teachings of Jesus.